Here you can find our GENDER EQUITY AND ENERGY ACCESS IN THE GLOBAL SOUTH  four policy briefs:

About 26% of Pakistan’s population lacks access to electricity, and the country was ranked 151 out of 153 countries in the Global Gender Gap Index Report 2020. Despite this, energy policies remain ‘gender-blind’. This Policy Brief offers recommendations on: mainstreaming gender across energy policies and budgets; developing monitoring and evaluation techniques; and building cross-sectoral partnerships to improve regulatory oversight while respecting local cul­tural practices, among other measures. It also provides practical suggestions for improving women’s participation throughout the energy-supply chain.

With 43% of the population lacking access to electricity, and the country ranked 139 out of 156 countries in the Global Gender Gap Report 2021, Nigeria faces critical issues of gender equity and energy access. This Policy Brief provides recommendations on issues including: building inter-agency co-operation; developing energy training programmes that prioritise women’s empow­erment; and creating partnerships between financial institutions, cooperatives and social entrepreneurs to improve women’s access to energy financing.

Despite near universal access to electricity, India faces complex challenges in terms of gender equity and energy access, with policy intentions often failing to translate into real impact on the ground. This Policy Brief offers recommendations for public policy, including on: recognition of household diversity; gender disaggregated impact assessment; and gender budgeting. It also provides tailored recommendations for energy companies; for example, on promoting gender equal participation within supply chains to leverage women’s skills.

Ghana is often seen as an energy success story within the West African context, with over 80% of the pop­ulation having access to grid electricity, and a national energy policy that recognises the importance of gender. However, there remain major implementation challenges. This Policy Brief offers targeted recommendations on: supporting women entrepreneurs; future-proofing off-grid systems; providing energy finance for women; and addressing the specific access challenges of urban slums and rural areas, among other policy measures.

Khalid, R. and Foulds, C. 2021. Gendering practices and policies in the South: Lessons for improved equity and sustainability in Pakistan’s domestic energy sector, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy Summer Study 2021. Stockholm: eceee.

Paper abstract: Various studies have shown that energy access, consumption and efficiency are inextricably linked to gender, and that sustainable energy transition targets cannot be met without considering women’s energy needs. However, policies in the Global South focus primarily on improving energy access without considering the diversities of demand. This paper aims to investigate the gendered nature of energy practices and policies in the Global South, particularly in relation to the experiences and expectations of energy sector professionals in Pakistan. Specifically, the concept of energy justice is drawn upon within a gender-based practice theoretical framework, based on a preliminary analysis of 21 semi-structured interviews with professional experts from Pakistan’s energy sector. This study reveals a distinct divide of national energy policy and regulatory mechanisms between on-grid infrastructure development in urban/suburban areas, and off-grid rural communities to which access remains limited and unregulated. Analysis reveals different degrees of gender disparities between urban and rural contexts, as well as intersectional differences in energy practices of urban and rural women. Apart from distributional injustices, lack of recognition and participation in energy access play a significant role: women’s distinct energy needs and domestic practices remain marginalised in energy policy and planning due to lack of disaggregated data, context specific socio-cultural meanings and norms, and women’s underrepresented in the energy sector planning and policy. Equitable access to energy remains a challenge as professionals continue to differentiate between access to energy and its demand in domestic practices, resulting in a disconnect between ‘gender-neutral’ policy objectives and on-ground gender-biased energy outcomes. This study highlights the need to reconcile the divide between energy provision and the understanding of its demand, along with more just and gender-sensitive energy and planning policies for more equitable distribution and improved well-being.
For further information, please contact Rihab Khalid on